Breed origin


07/08/1996 / GB
Translation by Ms. C. Seidler &  Mrs. I. Kincaid.


USE: Versatile working dog, Shepherd, guard and service dog.

CLASSIFICATION D.K.O. : Group 1 Shepherds for sheep and cattle (excluding Swiss Highlanders and herdsmen)

Sector 1 Pastoral

With work exams.


According to an official decision, the Association for the German Shepherd Dog (Verein fur Deutsche Schaeferhunde) based in Augsburg, as a member of the German Kennel Club (Verband fur das Deutsche Hundeweswne.V., V.D.H.) and as a founding association for the breed, is responsible for the German Shepherd dog model. This model was originally drafted at the first meeting of the Union members in Franfurt / Main, on September 20, 1899, based on suggestions by A. Mayer and von Stephanitz. Revisions were made to the model at the 6th meeting of the members on 28 July 1901, at the 23rd meeting in Cologne / Rhine on 17 September 1909, at the meeting of the Board of Directors and the Advisory Committee in Wiesbaden, Germany on 5 September 1930 and at the meeting of the Board and the Tribal Committee on 25 March. The standard was revised and adopted by the World Shepherd Association (Weltunionfur Deutsche Schaeferhunde, WUSV) on 30 August 1976 and was revised and registered by decision of the Board of Directors and the Advisory Committee on 23 and 24 March 1991. The German Shepherd, whose planned breeding began in 1899 after the founding of the German Shepherd Association, evolved initially by breeding the then available shepherd dogs of Central and Southern Germany with the ultimate goal of creating a dog extremely suitable and for the most demanding work. To achieve this goal, the model of the German Shepherd Dog evolved, with emphasis on the right physical construction and in particular on the right temperament and good character.


The German Shepherd Dog is of medium size, Slightly elongated, strong and muscular, with dry bones and strong, (stable, well-knit) overall structure.


The German Shepherd Dog must be in a good mood, balanced (with strong nerves), confident, completely comfortable (unless challenged) and good by nature, as well as careful and easily trained. He must have the courage, agility (combativeness) and toughness to be suitable as a companion (companion), guard, service dog, Shepherd and protection and defense dog.


The head is wedge-shaped and proportional to the size of the body. (the length of the head is approximately 40% of the height at the withers of the dog), without being coarse or too long. Clear and dry in general appearance, moderately wide between the ears. The front as seen from the front and sideways is only slightly curved and without at all, or with a slightly visible central groove.

The ratio of the cranial country to the personal country is 50-50%.

The width of the skull corresponds approximately to its length. As seen from above, the skull narrows smoothly and progressively from the ears to the nasal bridge and also leans progressively towards the wedge-shaped face (muzzle) with an oblique, not very sharp “stop”. the upper and lower jaws are strongly developed. The nasal bridge is straight. Any indentation or curvature is undesirable. Lips tight, fit and dark.

– Nose: Must be black.

– Teeth: must be strong and healthy. Complete dentition (42 teeth according to the type of denture).

The German Shepherd Dog has a scissor bite, ie the sections (cutters) must match like the blades of the scissors to each other, so that the cutters of the upper jaw overlap and apply with the cutters of the lower jaw scissor. Tweezers, prenatal or submandibular bites are defects, as are the longer spaces between the teeth (gaps). Equally defective is the linear alignment of the cutters. The jaw bones must be strongly developed so that the teeth are firmly wedged into the dental arches.

Eyes: medium-sized, almond-shaped, slightly oblique, without protruding. Eye color should be as dark as possible. Light-colored, piercing eyes are undesirable, as they alter the dog’s expression.

– Ears: The German Shepherd Dog has upright ears of medium size which are held vertically upwards, with their ends pointing in the same, parallel, direction (without tilting inwards). They narrow at pointed edges and the flap is open forward. Half-fallen ears or drooping ears are defective. Ears that are tilted backwards in motion or rest are not defective.


The neck should be strong, muscular and without loose skin on the larynx. Its angle to the body (horizontally) is approximately 45 °.


The upper contour runs through (the trunk) without any visible interruption, from the base of the neck, over the clearly delineated foreheads and the back with a very slight inclination to the horizontal, to the progressive inclined ears. The back is tight – firm, strong and muscular. The Lumbar is wide, strongly developed and muscular. The area of ​​the hips and pelvis should be long, slightly sloping (about 23 ° to the horizontal) and, without any interruption of the dorsal line, it is attached to the base of the tail.

– Chest

Medium wide, the lower part of which is as long as possible and well developed. The depth of the chest should be from 45 to 48% of the height at the withers. The sides should be moderately arched. Ribs that are barrel-shaped or very flat are defective.

– Tail

It reaches at least to the tarsal joint, but not below the middle of the metatarsus. ‘It has slightly longer hair on its underside and is kept hanging on a soft curve. When the dog is excited or in motion, the tail is raised and carried higher, but not above the horizontal line. Corrective operations are prohibited.


– Anterior quadrants:

In every respect, the front legs are straight and, from the front, completely parallel to each other. Shoulder and arm are isometric, muscular and fit snugly on the torso. The angle formed between the shoulder and the arm is ideally 90 ° but generally up to 110 °. The elbows should not turn inwards or outwards, at rest or in motion. In all respects the limbs are straight and completely parallel to each other, dry and with tight muscles. The metacarpal is about 1/3 of the length of the limb. The angle between them (leg-metacarpal) is from 20th to 22nd. A weak metacarpal (angle more than 22o) or a steep metacarpal (angle less than 20o) affect the dog’s ability to work, especially not his endurance.

Front soles: round, tight, with well-curved phalanges. You were hard but not fragile.

The nails are strong and dark in color.

– Rear quadrants:

The rear legs are positioned slightly to the rear. As seen from behind, they are parallel to each other. Thigh and tibia are approximately equal in length and form an angle of approximately 120 °. The thighs are strong and muscular. The joints of the tarsus are strong and tight. The metatarsus stands vertically below the tarsal joint.

– Back soles:

Compact, slightly curved. The soles are hard and dark. The nails are strong, curved and also dark in color.


The German Shepherd Dog is a terrifying dog. Its members must be so coordinated and harmonized with each other in length and angles that, without noticeable change in the dorsal line, the hind limbs can be advanced towards the trunk while the front ones extend at equal distances. Any tendency to oversize the hind limbs reduces the cohesion-stability and durability, and therefore the working capacity. Proper body proportions and angles result in a level above the ground, very extensive ground cover stride that gives the impression of effortless promotion. The forward-pushing head and slightly raised tail contribute to a smooth, effortless trimming that features a gently curved, continuous, uninterrupted top line, from the tips of the ears, over the neck and back, to the tip. of the tail.


The skin fits (elastic) but without any folds.


– Hair texture:

The right coat for the German Shepherd Dog is the double coat (Stockhaar) with outer and inner layer. The outer hair should be as thick as possible, straight, rough and tight – closed on the body. On the head, inside the ears, the front of the legs and on the feet and the phalanges of the toes, the hair is short. It is slightly longer and denser in the neck. At the back of the legs, the hair is longer, extending to the metacarpals and metatarsals. Forms a moderate amount of “legs” on the back of the thighs.

– Colour :

Black with reddish-brown, brown, yellow to light gray markings. Monochrome black or monochrome gray. Gray people with shades show black “saddle” and “mask”. Non-annoying, small white marks on the chest as well as the very light shade on the inside are permissible but not desirable. The nose should be black in all colors. Dogs without a “mask”, with light to whitish marks on the chest and insides, pale (light-colored) nails and a red tail tip are considered to be inferior in pigmentation. The inner coat has a light grayish tint. White is not acceptable.


Males: height at the withers 60 – 65 cm.

weight 30 – 40 kg.
Females: height at the withers 55 – 60 cm.
weight 22 – 32 kg.

The body length is approximately 10 to 17% longer than the dog’s height at the withers.


Any departure from the above points must be considered a defect and the severity with which they must be treated must be precisely proportional to its degree.


Any departure from the breed characteristics described above which affects (hinders) the working ability of the dog. Defective ears: bilateral very low set ears, ears that bend at the edges, ears that tilt inwards. Ears that are not tight and firm.

  • Severe pigmentation
  • Serious lack of general coherence – robustness.
  • Dental defects: Any deviation from the scissor bite and the correct denture shape, if not included in the foreclosure defects listed below.


  • Weak temperament and nerves, biting dogs
  • Dogs with deformed ears or tail.
  • Dogs with deformities.
  • Dogs with missing teeth as follows:

a premolar 3 plus an additional tooth, or

a canine, or

A premolar 4, or

a molar 1 or 2, or

set of three or more missing teeth.

  • Dogs with defective jaws, maxillary more than 2 mm or submandibular. Tweezers bite formed by all 12 cutters.
  • Oversized or undersized dogs, more than 1 cm.
  • Albins
  • White cloak (even with dark eyes and nails)

Footnote: Male animals must have two apparently normal testicles completely lowered into the scrotum.


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